Multifangled are committed to research, evidence-based practice and innovation in education.

Our staff have published a number of articles and papers exploring ideas and issues around teaching and learning.


Evolution of adult numeracy from quantitative literacy to numeracy: lessons learned from international assessments by Dave Tout, International Review of Education, April 2020

This article discusses a growing understanding and awareness of adult numeracy as we move further into the 21st century, and describes how this has been enhanced through the evolution of the assessment of numeracy in international adult skills surveys.

Numeracy, adult education, and vulnerable adults: a critical view of a neglected field By Iddo Gal, Anke Grotlüschen, Dave Tout & Gabriele Kaiser in ZDM Mathematics Education 52, 377–394 (2020)

In this lead, survey paper in a special numeracy issue of ZDM Mathematics Education, the authors examine selected issues related to the intersection of three broad scholarly areas: numeracy, adult education, and vulnerability.  It reviews each of these areas, summarizes them, and makes conclusions and research directions regarding the intersection of the three core domains. The paper points to emerging research needs and educational challenges that are relevant to scholars, practitioners, and policy makers interested in developing the numeracy of adults as well as in the mathematics education of younger learners.

Using spelling knowledge as a framework to improve students’ writing by Lee Kindler & Jan Hagston, Fine Print, vol 41 # 1 2018

This article looks at some of the latest research around how people learn to spell and some practical ways to apply it.


Comparison of PIAAC and PISA Frameworks for Numeracy and Mathematical Literacy by Ido Gal & Dave Tout, OECD, May 2014.

The paper examines commonalities and differences of the frameworks for the assessment of adult numeracy and mathematical literacy in PIAAC and PISA, two OECD programs for international comparative assessment of competencies.


PIAAC – a quick look at the data by Jan Hagston, Fine Print 2014 vol:37 #1

A brief look at the Australian data with a focus on the difference in skill levels across age – and some of the implications.


Lessons learnt from international assessments (Part 2) by Dave Tout, Fine Print 2013 vol:36 #3

In this part of the article Dave emphasises the importance of international assessment in providing an insight and description of task development and complexity that teachers can refer to.


Lessons learnt from international assessments (Part 1) by Dave Tout in Fine Print 2013 vol:36 #2

Dave explains the implications and value of international assessment.


Finding professional development by Jan Hagston, Fine Print 2013 vol:36 #3

Jan considers what is professional development and learning and how do you ‘get’ it.


Evidence and/or theory by Jan Hagston in Fine Print 2013 vol:36 #2

Jan explains how literature reviews and meta-analyses have helped her to keep in touch with new research.


Practice makes perfect sense by Jan Hagston, Fine Print 2013 vol:36 #1

Jan begins a conversation around the role of skills development in literacy and numeracy programs.


The story behind My neighbourhood: literacy in context by Jan Hagston in Fine Print 2012 vol:35 #3

Jan describes why she decided to write her new resource and how she developed methods and activities around theories on literacy and applied learning.